Literary modernism - Wikipedia


british modernism literature

Like the Renaissance, the Enlightenment, and Romanticism, Modernism is a period or movement—an international movement in European, American, and World art, literature, and culture. Modernism occurs approximately years after Romanticism (late s - mids or later) and, more precisely, after the Realistic period in American literature. May 27,  · Old English (Anglo-Saxon) Period (–) The term Anglo-Saxon comes from two Germanic tribes, the Angles and the Saxons. This period of literature dates back to their invasion (along with the Jutes) of Celtic England circa The era ends in , when Norman France, under William, conquered England. Modernism. The Modernist Period in English Literature occupied the years from shortly after the beginning of the twentieth century through roughly In broad terms, the period was marked by sudden and unexpected breaks with traditional ways of viewing and interacting with the world. Experimentation and individualism became virtues.

A Brief Overview of British Literary Periods

Literary modernismor modernist literaturehas its origins in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, mainly in Europe and North America, and is characterized by a very self-conscious break with traditional ways of writing, in both poetry and prose fiction. Modernists experimented with literary form and expression, as exemplified by Ezra Pound 's maxim to "Make it new.

In the s increased attention was given to the idea that it was necessary to push aside previous norms entirely, instead of merely revising past knowledge in light of contemporary techniques.

The theories of Sigmund Freud —and Ernst Mach — influenced early Modernist literature. Ernst Mach argued that the mind had a fundamental structure, and that subjective experience was based on the interplay of parts of the mind in The Science of Mechanics Freud's first major work was Studies on Hysteria with Josef Breuer According to Freud, all subjective reality was based on the play of basic drives and instincts, through which the outside world was perceived.

As a philosopher of science, Ernst Mach was a major influence on logical positivismand through his criticism of Isaac Newtona forerunner of Einstein 's theory of relativity. Many prior theories about epistemology argued that external and absolute reality could impress itself, as it were, on an individual, as, for example, John Locke 's — empiricismwhich saw the mind beginning as a tabula rasaa blank slate An Essay Concerning Human Understanding Freud's description of subjective states, involving an unconscious mind full of primal impulses and counterbalancing self-imposed restrictions, was combined by Carl Jung — with the british modernism literature of the collective unconsciouswhich the conscious mind either fought or embraced.

While Charles Darwin 's work remade the Aristotelian concept of "man, the animal" in the public mind, Jung suggested that human impulses toward breaking social norms were not the product of childishness or ignorance, but rather derived from the essential nature of the human animal.

Another major precursor of modernism was Friedrich Nietzsche[4] especially his idea that psychological drives, specifically the " will to power ", british modernism literature, were more important than facts, or things. Henri Bergson —on the other hand, emphasized the difference between scientific clock time and the direct, subjective, human experience of time.

Initially, some modernists fostered a utopian spirit, british modernism literature, stimulated british modernism literature innovations in anthropologypsychologybritish modernism literature, philosophypolitical theoryphysics and psychoanalysis. The poets of the Imagist movementfounded by Ezra Pound in as a new poetic style, gave modernism its early start in the 20th century, [9] and were characterized by a poetry that favoured a precision of imagerybrevity and free verse.

Many modernist writers also shared a mistrust of institutions of power such as government and religion, and rejected the notion of absolute truths. Modernist works such as T. Eliot 's The Waste Land were increasingly self-aware, british modernism literature, introspective, and explored the darker aspects of human nature. The term modernism covers a number of related, and overlapping, artistic and literary movements, british modernism literature, including ImagismSymbolismFuturismVorticismCubismSurrealismExpressionismand Dada.

Early modernist writers, especially those writing after World War I and the disillusionment that followed, broke the implicit contract with the general public that artists were the reliable interpreters and representatives of mainstream "bourgeois" culture and ideas, and, instead, developed unreliable narratorsexposing the irrationality at the roots of a british modernism literature rational world.

They also attempted to take into account changing ideas about reality developed by DarwinMachFreudbritish modernism literature, EinsteinNietzscheBergson and others. From this developed innovative literary techniques such as stream-of-consciousness, interior monologueas well as the use of multiple points-of-view. This can reflect doubts about the philosophical basis of realismor alternatively an expansion of our understanding of what is meant by realism.

For example, the use of stream-of-consciousness or interior monologue reflects the need for greater psychological realism. It is debatable when the modernist literary movement began, though some have chosen as roughly marking the beginning and quote novelist Virginia Woolfbritish modernism literature, who declared that human nature underwent a fundamental change "on or about December ".

Among early modernist non-literary landmarks is the atonal ending of Arnold Schoenberg 's Second String Quartet inthe Expressionist paintings of Wassily Kandinsky starting in and british modernism literature with his first abstract painting and the founding of the Expressionist Blue Rider group in Munich inthe rise of fauvismand the introduction of cubism from the studios of Henri MatissePablo PicassoGeorges British modernism literature and others between and Sherwood Anderson 's Winesburg, Ohio is known as an early work of modernism for its plain-spoken prose style and emphasis on psychological insight into characters.

James Joyce was a major british modernism literature writer whose strategies employed in his novel Ulysses for depicting the events during a twenty-four-hour period in the life of his protagonist, Leopold Bloomhave come to epitomize modernism's approach to fiction.

The poet T. Eliot described these qualities in british modernism literature, noting that Joyce's technique is "a way of controlling, of ordering, british modernism literature giving a shape and a significance to the immense panorama of futility and anarchy which is contemporary history Instead of narrative method, we may now use the mythical method.

It is, british modernism literature, I seriously believe, a step toward making the modern world possible for art, british modernism literature. This is in fact a rhetorical technique to convey the poem's theme: "The decay and fragmentation of Western Culture". Modernist literature addressed similar aesthetic problems as contemporary modernist art.

Gertrude Stein 's abstract writings, such as Tender Buttonsfor example, british modernism literature, have been compared to the fragmentary and multi-perspective Cubist paintings of her friend Pablo Picasso.

In this poem, MacDiarmid applies Eliot's techniques to respond to the question of nationalism, using comedic parody, in an optimistic though no less hopeless form of modernism in which the artist as "hero" seeks to embrace complexity and locate new meanings, british modernism literature. Significant modernist works continued to be created in the s and s, including further novels by Marcel Proustbritish modernism literature, Virginia Woolf, Robert Musil Man without Qualitiesand Dorothy Richardson.

The American modernist dramatist Eugene O'Neill 's career began inbut his major works appeared in the s and s and early s. Lawrence 's Lady Chatterley's Lover was published inwhile another important landmark for the history of the modern novel came with the publication of William Faulkner 's The Sound and the Fury in The s would prove to be watershed years in modernist poetry.

In this period, T. Djuna Barnes published her famous lesbian novel Nightwood in Then in James Joyce 's Finnegans Wake appeared. It was in this year that another Irish modernist, british modernism literature, W. Yeatsdied. In poetry, E. Cummingsand Wallace Stevens continued writing into the s. It was in this period when T. Eliot began writing what would become his final british modernism literature poetic work, Four Quartets.

Eliot shifted focus in this period, writing several plays, including Murder in the Cathedral. The term late modernism is sometimes applied to modernist works published after Basil Buntingborn inpublished his most important modernist british modernism literature Briggflatts in Samuel Beckettwho died inhas been described as a "later modernist". The terms minimalist and post-modernist have also been applied to his later works, british modernism literature.

Prynne b. More recently the term late modernism has been redefined by at least one critic and used to refer to works written afterrather than With this usage goes the idea that the ideology of modernism was significantly re-shaped by the events of World War IIespecially the Holocaust and the dropping of the atom bomb. The Scottish writer Ali Smith has been considered by many to be a very late Modernist writer.

The term Theatre of the Absurd is applied to plays written by primarily European playwrightsthat express the belief that human existence has no meaning or purpose and therefore all communication breaks down.

Logical construction and argument gives way to irrational and illogical speech and to its ultimate conclusion, silence. Critic Martin Esslin coined the term in his essay, "Theatre of the Absurd. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For modern literature, see History of modern literature. Contemporary French literature Experimental literature Expressionism theatre History of theatre Stream of consciousness 20th century in literature Twentieth-century English literature Postmodern literature List of modernist writers List of modernist women writers.

Modern American Literature. Retrieved 20 April Spring - Summer, british modernism literature,pp. Linda R. London: Bloomsbury,pp. Merriam Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster. Bennett and Mrs. Leonard Woolf. London: Hogarth, British modernism literature The Dial. London: Bloomsbury,p. Champaign: University of Illinois Press. Oxford University Press, Edited by Dinah Birch, british modernism literature.

Oxford University Press Inc. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. His final essay on modernism. Literature Compass. John Wilson Foster. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Archived from the original on Retrieved Anna Akhmatova Richard Aldington W. Robert Desnos T. Categories : 20th-century literature Literary modernism Modernist works. Hidden categories: Pages using citations with format and no URL CS1 errors: deprecated parameters Comics infobox without image Comics genre pop All articles with british modernism literature statements Articles with unsourced statements from May Articles with unsourced statements from April Articles with unsourced statements from November Articles with Curlie links.

Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. The Lost Generationthe Bloomsbury Group.


Modernism | Definition, History, & Examples |


british modernism literature


Modernism in literature. The Modernist impulse is fueled in various literatures by industrialization and urbanization and by the search for an authentic response to a much-changed world. Although prewar works by Henry James, Joseph Conrad, and other writers are considered Modernist, Modernism as a literary movement is typically associated with the period after World War I. Modernist literature was a predominantly English genre of fiction writing, popular from roughly the s into the s. Modernist literature came into its . Jun 13,  · Formalism. Writers of the Modernist period saw literature more as a craft than a flowering of creativity. They believed that poems and novels were constructed from smaller parts instead of the organic, internal process that earlier generations had described. The idea of literature as craft fed the Modernists' desire for creativity and originality.